The history of the development of 12-cylinder motors
The first designer who managed to create a working prototype of a 12-cylinder engine is Daimler Gottlieb, while he took the project developed by Leon Levavassor as the basis for his engine. At the beginning of the 20th century, such power units were installed on sea boats and motor boats from Société Antoinette. Replacing the four cylinders with 12s allowed a significant increase in power and performance, so these engines were very popular.
In 1904, Putney Motor Works, using the experience of its predecessors, developed and launched into a series the first V-shaped engines, which were widely used in various fields. In 1909, Renault launched a motor for the aeronautical industry, which was the first to have piston rows at 60 ° and used air cooling.
The characteristics of the engine are not impressive by today’s standards: with a volume of 12.3 liters, the cylinder diameter was 95 mm, and the piston stroke was 140 mm. In 2010, the French released a more compact version of the engine, designed for motor boats and powerboats. Two years later, a 17.5-liter liquid-cooled power unit appeared, developing a power of 135 kW and spinning the crankshaft up to 1400 rpm.
In 2013, Sunbeam Motor Car succeeded in designing an engine with similar characteristics intended for installation in cars (L piston — 15.0 cm, D cylinder — 8.0 cm). The first model on which a 12-piston engine was tested was the Toodles V, which managed to conquer several speed records.
On the eve of World War II, it was engines with 12 pistons that became the main ones for heavy military equipment. After its end and a long period of recession and industrial recovery, these motors were undeservedly consigned to oblivion.
And only in 1972, the famous British carmaker Jaguar released an innovative 5.3-liter X12 engine for that time, which revived the mass production of 12-cylinder
https://motomaxauto.com powertrains. The model was so successful that it was produced until 1996. Today, such motors have become even more advanced, powerful and economical (in relation to their predecessors).
Show model — 12-cylinder V-block with a camber angle of 60 degrees. On its basis, it is also planned to create a whole series: V8, V6 and in-line «four». All motors in the line are expected to have the same bore (88mm), but the stroke (90mm on the V12) will vary. The pistons themselves, presumably, will also be unified.
The motor is «all-aluminum», both the block and the block head are made of light alloy — as a result, the «dry» mass without liquids is 310 kilograms. In US they say that the composition of the alloy is their own know-how, and the foundry equipment for the production of blocks is also their own.
Cylinders — with quite traditional «dry» thin-walled cast iron sleeves. There was an idea to abandon liners altogether and apply a «nikasil» coating to the cylinder walls to reduce friction losses. However, it was abandoned, since «Nikasil» is very fragile and is simply destroyed from detonation after refueling with insufficient octane number.
Engine operation procedure
So, the order of work of the cylinders of the most common automobile engines is different. If we compare the order of operation of the same type of 4, 6, and also 8-cylinder motors, the order of operation of the cylinders of such engines will be noticeably different. In other words, a 4-cylinder engine and its cylinders will work in a different order than, for example, an 8-cylinder analogue. Let’s figure it out.
First of all, the order of operation of the cylinders will depend on the alternation of ignition of the fuel mixture in the engine cylinders, as well as the angle of alternation of strokes. So, the working cycle of an in-line four-stroke engine for 4 cylinders takes 2 full revolutions of the crankshaft or 720 degrees. In this case, the alternation of measures is carried out through 180 degrees.